Abscess (purulent abscess)

The human body is a self-regulating system, it is able to cope with many diseases without additional impact. This is provided by lymphocytes – blood cells that absorb harmful microorganisms. Having fulfilled their function, they die off and form pus, with which harmful waste products of cells are excreted. However, under unfavorable conditions, the balance in the body is disturbed. Purulent formations from a cleansing substance turn into a disease-causing one. This process is called an abscess. It attacks the outer and inner tissues, causing abscesses.

Abscess symptoms

This disease is characterized by manifestations typical for any inflammatory process: redness, local temperature rise, pain with pressure. But this applies mainly to the defeat of the external integument. An internal abscess is more difficult to recognize. It makes itself felt with high fever, general malaise, impaired organ functionality, pain, increased fatigue. Depending on which part of the body was affected, the following types of abscesses are distinguished:

soft tissues;
lungs;
brain and spinal cord;
liver;
small pelvis;
interintestinal;
spinal.

The most common is a purulent soft tissue abscess, which mainly affects the skin. It is quite simple to identify it by external signs, and it is more convenient to carry out diagnostics due to the proximity of the inflammation focus. It is characterized by the following symptoms:

build-up of redness and swelling for several days;
fluctuation;
an increase in temperature in the affected area;
in some cases – intoxication.
The disease, without proper treatment, threatens to become chronic. The second possible option is an involuntary opening of an abscess with damage to adjacent tissues and organs. Only timely treatment will protect the body from the severe consequences of the disease.

Causes of the disease

External abscess of soft tissues most often develops in violation of the integrity of the skin. A bacterium enters the wound, and lymphocytes are secreted to fight it. The harmful body is enclosed in a capsule of inflammatory cells – this localizes the focus and prevents microorganisms from spreading. Most often, an abscess is caused by:

staphylococcus aureus;
colibacillus;
proteus mirabilis.

Also, an abscess can be provoked by certain medications and other diseases. It can occur in almost any part of the body. Most often this occurs at the site of the primary violation of the integrity of the tissues. Sometimes an abscess manifests symptoms as a complication of an existing disease. This is often:

appendicitis;
sore throat and pharyngitis;
trauma and surgery;
ingrown nail;
crohn’s disease.

The causes of abscesses of internal organs are infectious lesions from the outside or from peripheral foci of suppuration. A provoking microorganism can penetrate during an injection, through an inflamed cyst or hematoma, and be carried with the blood stream from another organ.

Which doctor will cure?

A purulent abscess requires mandatory qualified treatment. Without medical intervention, the disease can be fatal, especially with lesions of internal organs. To prevent complications from occurring, you should consult a doctor such as:

SURGEON
At the appointment, the doctor will need to find out the possible cause of the infection. This will help with an accurate diagnosis and targeted impact on the purulent process. The patient will have to answer the following questions:

What are the specific symptoms that prompted you to seek medical help?
How long have they been showing?
Could an abscess have occurred at the site of an existing skin lesion?
Are there any pains in the area of ​​any internal organs?
What acute illnesses did the patient suffer?
Has he recently taken antibiotics or intramuscular medication?
Have any inflammatory processes been observed in the body?
After that, the continuation of diagnostics with the help of laboratory and hardware studies will be assigned. In most cases, a puncture is performed at the site of the abscess, and with an internal abscess – radiology.

Treatment methods

Regardless of which part of the body is subject to a purulent inflammatory process, the algorithm for dealing with it in most cases is the same. Only the level of complexity of the surgical intervention and elimination of the consequences vary. The fight against the disease takes place according to the following scheme:

Surgical lancing of an abscess. With an insignificant size of the lesion, it is performed on an outpatient basis.
Drainage – pumping out purulent formations and inflammatory fluids.
Antibiotic therapy, drugs and doses at which vary depending on the form and severity of the disease.
Anesthetic measures – taking pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medications.
Removal of toxins from the body. In severe cases, blood purification and blood transfusion systems are used.
Abscess treatment is always selected on an individual basis. Moreover, cases when it was possible to avoid surgical intervention are quite rare. Refusal of surgery as a method of treatment is typical for inflammation of some organs – for example, the liver. In other cases, removal of the abscess gives good results. Postoperative care is similar in principle to the treatment of inflamed wounds. Mandatory are:

regular change of sterile dressings;
sanitary conditions of stay;
balanced diet;
moderate physical activity;
taking anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics.

With the timely start of treatment, the outcome for opening the abscess is favorable. Stopping exposure to the pathogen virtually eliminates the risk of relapse. A neglected pathology or incomplete drainage of the inflammation focus can lead to the development of a chronic form of the disease and its spread to other tissues.