Many people ask the question – acne: what is it? The earliest mentions and descriptions of this disease appeared in the middle of the first millennium. Almost 90% of people have encountered this ailment at one time, because it is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases. Acne vulgaris, or acne vulgaris, is an actual problem for people of different ages. The disease affects both newborns, children and adults.

Acne vulgaris, or acne vulgaris

In adolescence, acne vulgaris, or acne vulgaris, is more common. The disease is characterized by many distinctive features and forms of its course. Among the latter, there are:

extremely difficult.

profile of young girl with acne on white background

Localization of acne is due to the accumulation of sebaceous glands. The most vulnerable areas are:

the chin;

By their nature, component formations in acne are of non-inflammatory and inflammatory typology. These include:

open and closed acne (comedones);
papules and pustules (acne);

The appearance of acne lesions is very diverse. The size depends on the degree of inflammation and varies from very small (with a poppy seed) to large – large inflamed areas with several purulent tops. Acne is most often in the form of a cone or hemisphere. Comedones are black or white, papules and pustules range from pink-red to purple-blue.

Causes of appearance on the skin

Like any other disease, acne has its own prerequisites and causes. Almost under the entire skin of a person there are hair follicles, the so-called follicles, from which, in fact, hair grows. Each follicle is surrounded by many sebaceous glands, the main function of which is to soften the skin and maintain its moisture balance. The disease is based on malfunctions of the sebaceous glands, caused by internal and external factors. Internal causes of acne include:

teenage hormonal changes;
premenstrual disruptions;
gastrointestinal diseases;
endocrine disorders;
weakened immune system;
vitamin deficiency.

Many scientific medical sources focus on the fact that the disease is hereditary. The severity of the course of the disease also depends on the genetic predisposition.

Among the external causes of the disease are:

specific climate;
ultra-violet rays;
cosmetical tools;
toxic substances;
steroid drugs;
squeezing acne.

Awareness of the causes of acne will allow, if not completely avoid, then at least minimize the risk of the onset of the disease. Naturally, it is difficult to influence internal factors, but it is quite possible to effectively control external ones.

Which doctor should I go to?

With the question of what is acne on the skin, it is best to contact such specialists as:


During the initial examination, the doctor will pay attention to:

genetic predisposition to the disease;
the age of the patient;
profession or occupation;
anatomical and physiological features;
the time of the onset of formations.

During the physical examination, the specialist will determine:

localization of acne;
the form of component formations;
the severity of the course of the disease.

In addition to the above, the doctor will definitely find out information about whether there has been a previous treatment and its effectiveness. You may also need information about comorbidities.

In severe forms of the course of the disease, laboratory tests will be needed. The complex may include:

general blood analysis;
blood chemistry;
study of the level of hormones;
ultrasound procedure;
X-ray of the skull.

Cream applying to problematic female skin with acne scars

In extremely severe forms of acne, differential diagnosis is carried out with papulopustular syphilis, skin tuberculosis, tuberous sclerosis and other diseases.

Treatment methods

The correct choice of methods plays an important role in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Advice from experienced friends or grandmothers in the neighborhood can aggravate the disease and increase the duration of treatment. Only a qualified dermatologist will be able to assess the combination of factors that led to the disease and prescribe an effective treatment.

The method of treating acne vulgaris includes several areas:

decreased production of sebum;
blackhead removal;
prevention of the appearance of neoplasms;
slowing down the inflammatory process.

Pharmacotherapy for acne consists of a set of drugs for the treatment of concomitant diseases and external agents The course of treatment is determined by a medical council of a dermatologist, endocrinologist and cosmetologist. Specialists proceed from the individual course of the disease and select a complex from a wide range of treatment methods. Among them:

compliance with the rules of personal hygiene;
systematic care of damaged skin areas;
anti-comedogenic drugs;
antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents;
antibiotic therapy.
The complex necessarily includes hardware methods for treating acne:

face cleaning;
laser therapy;

Surgical intervention is extremely rare and only in extremely severe cases of the disease.

Effects on the skin
The severity of the course of acne also affects the consequences of the disease on the skin. After itself, acne often leaves:

enlarged pores.
Some patients also note changes in certain areas of the skin of color, structure, disturbance of the smoothness of the surface, the appearance of a vascular network (rosacea).

The most common consequence of acne is scarring. Inflamed sebaceous glands destroy fatty tissue and collagen fibers, and replacement tissue takes their place. Mechanical damage to the skin when squeezing out acne also leads to scarring of the skin. During the course of the disease, scars can change in color. Fresh scars are usually bright pink. After a certain period of time, they can acquire both the color corresponding to the skin and become much lighter.

Inflammatory processes on the skin contribute to a rather serious weakening of the capillary walls and, as a result, the appearance of a visible vascular network. By itself, rosacea practically does not go away and requires special treatment. Acne causes color spots to appear on the skin. Most often they are much darker than their natural color and vary in size. There are cases when people with dark-skinned skin have acne spots that are much lighter than the usual natural color. With very severe consequences, the help of plastic surgeons may be needed.